Biatora mendax Anzi

Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1, 3: 153, 1862.
Synonyms: Biatora propinquata (Nyl.) Arnold; Biatora subflavida (Nyl.) Arnold; Biatorina mendax (Anzi) Jatta; Catillaria mendax (Anzi) Lettau; Lecidea propinquata Nyl.; Lecidea subflavida Nyl.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Carvalho 1995, Printzen 1995), TAA (Printzen 1995, Nascimbene & al. 2022), Lomb (Anzi Lich. Lang. 168: Printzen 1995, Ravera & al. 2023). S - Cal.
Description: Thallus crustose, thinly episubstratic, greenish grey to pale grey. Apothecia biatorine, rounded or slightly irregular in outline, sessile with a slightly constricted basis, 0.4-0.7(-1) mm across, with a brown-black, to black, rarely grey-brown, epruinose, flat to moderately convex disc, and an often slightly paler, thin, finally excluded proper margin. Proper exciple well-developed, of branched, radiating hyphae with protruding, capitate terminal cells; epithecium sordid brown, K-, N-; hymenium colourless or brownish, 35-60 µm high; paraphyses simple or sparingly branched in upper part, 1-1.5(-2) µm thick at mid-level, the apical cells slightly swollen; hypothecium colourless, pale sordid brown, N-. Asci 8-spored, clavate, with a K/I+ blue apical dome penetrated by a narrow, K/I– apical cushion surrounded by a narrow, deeply K/I+ blue zone, the wall K/I- but surrounded by an I+ red-brown, K/I+ blue outer layer, the ocular chamber relatively small, Biatora-type. Ascospores 1-celled (rarely 1-septate), hyaline, oblong-fusiform, (9-)12-17(-20) x (3-)3.5-4.5(-5.5) µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P+ orange-red. Chemistry: thallus with argopsin.
Note: an epiphytic species found in shaded and humid situations, with optimum in humid beech forests with Abies alba. It is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Endangered” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: extremely rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model
Herbarium samples

P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 18178

P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (18178)