Micarea rhabdogena (Norman) Hedl.

Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 3, 18, 3: 85, 1892. Basionym: Biatora rhabdogena Norman - Öfvers. K. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Förhandl., 27: 803, 1870
Synonyms: Lecidea rhabdogena (Norman) Th. Fr.
Description: Thallus crustose, endosubstratic, inapparent, the hyphal walls often olivaceous green, K+ violet. Apothecia micareoid, numerous, dull black, convex, hemispherical, sometimes clustered and tuberculate, 0.1-0.2 mm across (up to 0.4 mm when tuberculate), without a distinct proper margin. Proper exciple poorly developed, pale to dark fuscous brown, K- but the pigment partly dissolving, of radiating, branched and anastomosing hyphae; epithecium well-evident, fuscous brown, N-, K-, the pigment partly dissolving in K; hymenium pale yellowish brown, 25-30 µm, K+ or K+ faintly violet; paraphyses sparingly branched and anastomosing in lower part, richly branched in upper part, c. 1 µm thick at mid-level, the apical cells up to 1.5 µm wide; hypothecium pale yellowish brown, 70-160 µm high, K-, N-. Asci 8-spored, clavate, the I+ blue tholus with a wide, I+ dark blue tube structure, without ring-structure. Ascospores 1-celled or rarely a few 1-septate, hyaline, oblong-ellipsoid to bacilliform, 6-9 x 1.5-2.3 µm. Pycnidia black, the wall olivaceous, K+ violet, of 2 types: a) partly immersed to sessile, 40-80 µm across, producing oblong-ellipsoid to obovate mesoconidia measuring 3.5-47 x 1.4-1.8 µm; b) immersed, c. 40 µm across, producing narrowly cylindrical microconidia measuring 4-4.5 x 0.7-0.9 µm. Photobiont micareoid, the cells 4-7 μm wide. Spot tests: thallus K- or K+ faintly violet, C, KC-, P-. Chemistry: thallus and pycnidial walls with an olivaceous pigment.
Note: on wood of conifers in boreal-temperate-montane/subalpine areas, often with Parmeliopsis ambigua and ecologically related species, with a single record from the Eastern Alps (Carinthia, Austria); to be looked for in the Italian Alps.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: lignum
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

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