Kuettlingeria areolata (Zahlbr.) I.V. Frolov, Vondrák & Arup

in Frolov & al., J. Syst. Evol. 59, 3: 468, 2020. Basionym: Caloplaca cerina var. areolata Zahlbr. - Öst. bot. Z., 53: 289, 1903.
Synonyms: Caloplaca areolata (Zahlbr.) Clauzade; Caloplaca spalatensis auct. non Zahlbr.
Distribution: N - VG (Tretiach & al. 2007b), Lig (Giordani & al. 2016). C - Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Frolov & al. 2020).
Description: Thallus crustose, areolate, brown-grey to grey, 100-500 μm thick, forming irregular, up to to 3 cm wide patches, often starting the life-cycle on the thalli of other crustose lichens. Areoles angular to rounded, flat to slightly convex, usually contiguous, 0.1-0.5 mm thick. Epinecral layer often present, to c. 10 μm thick; cortex of spherical, thin-walled cells, K+ violet, N+ red in section; medulla well-developed only in thick thalli, of loose prosoplectenchyma, non amyloid. Apothecia frequent, zeorine, (0.3-)0.5-0.9(–1.3) mm across, with an initially orange, then dark orange brown to brown disc surrounded by a yellow to orange proper margin and by a grey thalline margin. Epithecium orange-brown, granular, K+ red C+ purple in section; hymenium colourless, c. 70–110 μm tall, amyloid; paraphyses 2.0–2.5 μm thick in lower part, but gradually widening to 4-5 μm in upper part; hypothecium colourless, rarely with a few oil droplets, amyloid, with a subhypothecial algal layer. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate, polarilocular, hyaline, ellipsoid (8-)12–15(-17) x (5-)7-8(-9.5) μm, the septum (4-)5-6(-7) μm thick. Pycnidia appearing as dark grey dots. Conidia ellipsoid to tear-shaped. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P- (but sections of cortex K+ violet, N+ red); apothecial disc and proper margin K+ red, C+ purple in section. Chemistry: cortex and top of pycnidia with the Sedifolia-grey pigment; apothecia with chlorinated anthraquinones.
Note: a mild-temperate, characteristic, but much misunderstood species found on the top of calcareous birds' perching boulders; in northern Italy is mostly found at low altitudes, in southern Italy it reaches the montane belt. This species was often synonymised with C. spalatensis Zahlbr., but according to Vondrák & al. (2013), the holotype of the latter species, contrary to what stated in the description, grows on siliceous rocks and has biatorine apothecia, being a poorly developed Blastenia.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
paras crustose lichens

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rather rare
Humid mediterranean belt: rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19555], Italia, Carstus Triestinus, in valle Rosandra prope urbem Trieste, alt. 160 m, ad saxa calcarea. Leg. P.L. Nimis & M. Tretiach, 22.12.1993. VEZDA: LICHENES RARIORES EXSICCATI NR. 141.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (30607)
2001/11/19



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19555], Italia, Carstus Triestinus, in valle Rosandra prope urbem Trieste, alt. 160 m, ad saxa calcarea. Leg. P.L. Nimis & M. Tretiach, 22.12.1993. VEZDA: LICHENES RARIORES EXSICCATI NR. 141.



Felix Schumm; Owner: CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996



Felix Schumm; Owner: CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_17384], Italia, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Prov. Trieste, below Santa Croce, c. 160 m, on limestone. Leg. Pecchiari & Tretiach, 02.06.1996.