Acarospora umbilicata Bagl.

Mem. R. Acc. Sc. Torino, ser. 2, 17: 397, 1857.
Synonyms: Acarospora percaenoides (Nyl.) Flagey; Acarospora rufidulocinerea Hue; Acarospora vesuviana Licop.; Acarospora vulcanica Jatta; Heppia cavalierii Werner; Lecanora percaenoides Nyl.
Distribution: N - VG, TAA, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig (Roccardi 2006). C - Tosc, Umb (Genovesi 2003b, 2011, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli 1997b, Genovesi & al. 2011), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Rizzi & al. 2011, Giordani & al. 2013). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Ottonello & Puntillo 1995, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Ottonello & al. 2011).
Description: Thallus crustose to subsquamulose, episubstratic, areolate, often forming extensive, up to 13 cm wide patches. Areoles 0.3-3 mm diam., usually of different sizes in the same thallus, attached by the entire lower surface, scattered to contiguous, flat to convex, angular in the center, often sublobate at margins, brown with usually a darker rim, more or less densely white-pruinose (densely pruinose thalli appear white, sparingly pruinose thalli brown); lower surface pale to dark brown. Epicortex very thin to absent; cortex 25-50 μm thick, brown in upper part; algal layer continuous or rarely interrupted by c. 10 μm thick hyphal bundles; medulla c. 100 μm μm thick, white, of thin-walled hyphae. Apothecia indistinctly lecanorine, 0.1-0.4 across, 1-5(-9) per squamule, immersed, often coalescing, with a round to angular, concave to flat, smooth, reddish brown, rarely white-pruinose disc and an inconspicuous thalline margin; proper margin brown-black, contrasting with the paler disc. Proper exciple 8-14(-20) μm thick at base, to 30 μm in upper part, yellowish; epithecium brown, c. 10 μm high; hymenium colourless, 85-110(-135) μm high, hemiamyloid; paraphyses coherent, sparingly branched in upper part, 1-1.5 μm thick at mid-level, the apical cells 2-3 μm wide; hypothecium colourless, 20-35 μm high. Asci 100-200-spored, clavate, the apical dome K/I-. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, subcylindrical, 4-5(-7) x 1-2 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P-. Chemistry: gyrophoric acid.
Note: a mild-temperate, mainly Mediterranean-Atlantic lichen found on steeply inclined, sunny faces of basic siliceous substrata, on roofing tiles and brick. Most common in Tyrrhenian Italy (e.g. on monuments and walls around Rome), below the montane belt.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather common
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare

pH of the substrata:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 10016


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php (Courtesy: Anita Stridvall)



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Lazio, Roma, Ruines of ancient Tusculum, above Frascati
18/03/2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14118], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Santa Barbara, Küstenfelsen, 38°40,746' N, 27°13,942' W, 0-41 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 13.07.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14118], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Santa Barbara, Küstenfelsen, 38°40,746' N, 27°13,942' W, 0-41 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 13.07.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14118], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Santa Barbara, Küstenfelsen, 38°40,746' N, 27°13,942' W, 0-41 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 13.07.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14118], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Santa Barbara, Küstenfelsen, 38°40,746' N, 27°13,942' W, 0-41 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 13.07.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14118], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Santa Barbara, Küstenfelsen, 38°40,746' N, 27°13,942' W, 0-41 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 13.07.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14118], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Santa Barbara, Küstenfelsen, 38°40,746' N, 27°13,942' W, 0-41 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 13.07.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14118], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Santa Barbara, Küstenfelsen, 38°40,746' N, 27°13,942' W, 0-41 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 13.07.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14118], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Santa Barbara, Küstenfelsen, 38°40,746' N, 27°13,942' W, 0-41 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 13.07.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14118], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Santa Barbara, Küstenfelsen, 38°40,746' N, 27°13,942' W, 0-41 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 13.07.2008.


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy, Puntillo 10807