Cladonia firma (Nyl.) Nyl.

Bot. Z., 1861: 352, 1861. Basionym: Cladonia alcicornis var. firma Nyl. - Syn. Lich., 1: 191, 1858.
Synonyms: Cladonia foliacea var. firma (Nyl.) Vain.; Cladonia nylanderi Cout.
Distribution: N - TAA, Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Gheza & al. 2020). C - Tosc, Laz, Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, 2002b, Nöske 2000, Zedda & al. 2010, Cogoni & al. 2011, Neuwirth 2018, Burgaz & al. 2020). S - Si (Burgaz & al. 2020).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, the squamules prominent, persistent, forming dense mats, 0.5-2 cm long, 1-4 mm wide, mostly ascending, entire to slightly indented, often curved at apices when dry, glaucous green to grey-green above, reddish grey beneath, often darker toward the base. Podetia rare, hollow inside, greenish grey, funnel-shaped, sometimes proliferating from the center, with a continuous to shallowly areolate cortex. Apothecia extremely rare, dark brown, convex, on the margins of cups. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia dark, semi-immersed along the margins of cups or on the primary squamules, sessile, subglobose to ovoid. Conidia bacilliform. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ red, UV-. Chemistry: fumarprotocetraric acid, atranorin, and variable amounts of rangiformic acid.
Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on mineral, often base-rich soil in open Mediterranean grasslands.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rather rare
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[8119], Spanien, Kanarische Inseln, Gran Canaria, im Usnea-reichen Pinus canariensis Wald des Pinar de Tamadaba westlich von Artenara; N 28°01.852', W 15°40.853', 1094 m. Leg.Schumm 28.12.2000.

P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (13268)

Harrie Sipman – Source - As Caloplaca oasis