Flavoplaca limonia (Nimis & Poelt) Arup, Frödén & Søchting

in Arup & al., Nord. J. Bot., 31: 45, 2013. Basionym: Caloplaca limonia Nimis & Poelt in Nimis & al. - Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, 45: 252, 1994.
Synonyms:
Distribution: N - VG (Ravera & al. 2018), Ven (Vondrák 2008, Vondrák & al. 2009). C - Tosc (Nascimbene & al. 2021), Sar (Herb. Vondrák 10807). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1996b, Vondrák & al. 2009).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, pale yellow to yellowish green, sometimes weakly whitish-pruinose, often >200 µm thick, forming a more or less continuous to areolate-granulose, up to 10 cm wide crust. Areoles flattened, contiguous, 0.2-2.5 mm wide, densely covered in diffuse, 40-80(-140) µm thick, laminal blastidia and true soralia produced from cracked blastidia, or after the blastidia have eroded. Upper cortex paraplectenchymatous, evident only in young squamules; medulla white, rather thick. Apothecia rather frequent, zeorine, at first immersed, then sessile and constricted at base, with a yellow to yellow-brown, concave to flat disc, a yellow proper margin, and a thick, yellow, sorediate-blastidiate, finally sometimes excluded thalline margin. Proper exciple of more or less radially to irregularly arranged, strongly swollen hyphae that neither give rise to a recognizable paraplectenchymatic structure, nor to a true cortex; epithecium yellowish, K+ red; hymenium colourless, c. 100 µm high; paraphyses loose, c. 1.5 µm thick, the last 2-3 cells larger, the apical cell c. 8 µm wide, more or less spherical, covered by an epipsamma; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate, hyaline, polarilocular, ellipsoid to subglobose, 8-16 x 4-8 µm, the septum 3-5.5 µm thick (c. 40 % of spore length). Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus and apothecia K+ red, C-, KC- P-, UV+ pale orange. Chemistry: thallus and apothecia with parietin (major), fallacinal, emodin, teloschistin and parietinic acid (minor), corresponding with chemosyndrome A of Søchting (1997).
Note: on calcareous rocks or on base-rich, hard siliceous cliffs in dry and sun-exposed to shaded and damp situations, but also on twigs of maritime shrubs or on soil, below the montane belt. The species, described from the calcareous cliffs along the coast of the Island of Marettimo, is also known from inland localities, and is certainly more widespread in Italy; earlier records might be under F. citrina s.lat.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: rare
Padanian area: very rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rare
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: extremely rare

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 20756



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38183)
2008.02.23



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (38183)
2008.02.23



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[ABL 73697], The Netherlands, Prov. Noord-Holland, Velsen, ENCI 102,48 498,4, on chalk dust. Leg. A. Aptroot, 05.06.2015, det. A. Aptroot 2015



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[ABL 73697], The Netherlands, Prov. Noord-Holland, Velsen, ENCI 102,48 498,4, on chalk dust. Leg. A. Aptroot, 05.06.2015, det. A. Aptroot 2015



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[ABL 73697], The Netherlands, Prov. Noord-Holland, Velsen, ENCI 102,48 498,4, on chalk dust. Leg. A. Aptroot, 05.06.2015, det. A. Aptroot 2015



Felix Schumm; Owner: CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_18657], Italia, Sicily, Island of Marettimo (Egadi Islands, Prov. Trapani), c. 150 m, on calciferous soil. Leg. P.L. Nimis, 24-31.03.1991



Felix Schumm; Owner: CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_18657], Italia, Sicily, Island of Marettimo (Egadi Islands, Prov. Trapani), c. 150 m, on calciferous soil. Leg. P.L. Nimis, 24-31.03.1991



Felix Schumm; Owner: CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_18657], Italia, Sicily, Island of Marettimo (Egadi Islands, Prov. Trapani), c. 150 m, on calciferous soil. Leg. P.L. Nimis, 24-31.03.1991



Felix Schumm; Owner: CC BY-SA 4.0
[TSB_18657], Italia, Sicily, Island of Marettimo (Egadi Islands, Prov. Trapani), c. 150 m, on calciferous soil. Leg. P.L. Nimis, 24-31.03.1991



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY SA 4.0
TSB 41379



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY SA 4.0
TSB 41379



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY SA 4.0
TSB 41379



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20756)
2001/12/18



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41381



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41381



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41381



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 36728



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 36728



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 36728