Leucodermia leucomelos (L.) Kalb

in Mongkolsuk & al., Phytotaxa, 235, 1: 35, 2015. Basionym: Lichen leucomelos L. - Sp. Pl., 2 ed.: 1613, 1763.
Synonyms: Anaptychia leucomelaena auct.; Anaptychia leucomelos (L.) A. Massal.; Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt; Physcia leucomelos (L.) Michx.
Distribution: C - Tosc, Sar (HAL-419). S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Ottonello & Puntillo 2009, Ottonello & al. 2011).
Description: Thallus foliose to subfruticose, of strap-shaped, dichotomously branched, several cm long, 0.5-4 mm wide lobes provided with long, dark, mostly branched marginal cilia. Upper surface whitish to cream-colored, smooth, somehow shiny, lower surface white to rarely pale brown, ecorticate and erhizinate, arachnoid, sometimes with irregular soralia. Apothecia extremely rare (not observed in Italian material), lecanorine, subterminal and stipitate, 2-3(-5) mm across, with a dark brown to black, more or less pruinose disc, and a crenulate to lobulate thalline margin. Asci 8-spored, thick-walled, the apex I+ blue with a wide, divergent axial body, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-septate, brown, ellipsoid, Pachysporaria-type, 30-50 x 15-23 µm. Pycnidia rare, immersed. Conidia bacilliform, 4-5 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex K+ yellow C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow turning red, C-, KC+ yellow turning red, P+ yellow-orange. Chemistry: cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin, medulla with atranorin, zeorin and variable amounts of salazinic acid.
Note: a humid subtropical to mild-temperate species found on bark and over epiphytic and epilithic bryophytes, sometimes on siliceous rocks in very humid areas with a mild climate, generally near the coast. The sample from Sardinia, identified by J. Poelt, was collected by B. Feige at M. Ferru. An earlier record from Trentino-Alto Adige (see Nimis 1993: 316), being very dubious, is not accepted here. The species is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Critically Endangered” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c). The old epithets leucomela and leucomelaenos are misspellings.
Growth form: Foliose, narrow lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Restricted to humid-warm, oceanic areas

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

12345

Solar irradiation:

12345

Aridity:

12345

Eutrophication:

12345

Poleotolerance:

0123

Altitudinal distribution:

123456


Predictive model
Herbarium samples


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[KK13865], Ostafrika, Kenya[KK37759], Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Fila Cruces Ridge, Umgebung des „Las Cruces Tropical Botanical Garden“, ca. 4 km südsüdöstlich von San Vito, prämontane Regenwaldzone, 1300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst, 31.12.1978.Central Province, Nanyuki District, zwischen Naru Moru und dem Mount Kenya, 2300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & A. Schrögl, 14.08.1985, det. Kalb.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (8855)
2001/11/24
detail of lower surface



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (8855)
2001/11/24
tip of lobes with cilia seen from below



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[KK13865], Ostafrika, Kenya[KK37759], Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Fila Cruces Ridge, Umgebung des „Las Cruces Tropical Botanical Garden“, ca. 4 km südsüdöstlich von San Vito, prämontane Regenwaldzone, 1300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst, 31.12.1978.Central Province, Nanyuki District, zwischen Naru Moru und dem Mount Kenya, 2300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & A. Schrögl, 14.08.1985, det. Kalb.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[KK13865], Ostafrika, Kenya[KK37759], Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Fila Cruces Ridge, Umgebung des „Las Cruces Tropical Botanical Garden“, ca. 4 km südsüdöstlich von San Vito, prämontane Regenwaldzone, 1300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst, 31.12.1978.Central Province, Nanyuki District, zwischen Naru Moru und dem Mount Kenya, 2300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & A. Schrögl, 14.08.1985, det. Kalb.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[KK13865], Ostafrika, Kenya[KK37759], Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Fila Cruces Ridge, Umgebung des „Las Cruces Tropical Botanical Garden“, ca. 4 km südsüdöstlich von San Vito, prämontane Regenwaldzone, 1300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst, 31.12.1978.Central Province, Nanyuki District, zwischen Naru Moru und dem Mount Kenya, 2300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & A. Schrögl, 14.08.1985, det. Kalb.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[KK13865], Ostafrika, Kenya[KK37759], Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Fila Cruces Ridge, Umgebung des „Las Cruces Tropical Botanical Garden“, ca. 4 km südsüdöstlich von San Vito, prämontane Regenwaldzone, 1300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & G. Plöbst, 31.12.1978.Central Province, Nanyuki District, zwischen Naru Moru und dem Mount Kenya, 2300 m. Leg. K. Kalb & A. Schrögl, 14.08.1985, det. Kalb.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (8855)
2001/11/24



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife, Anaga



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 36866



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 36866



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 36866


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 42277