Kiliasia athallina (Hepp) Hafellner

Beih. Nova Hedwigia 79: 262, 1984.. Basionym: Biatora athallina Hepp - Flecht. Eur., 9: nr. 499, 1860.
Synonyms: Biatorina lenticularis f. acrustacea Hepp ex Arnold nom.nud.; Catillaria acrustacea Arnold; Catillaria athallina (Hepp) Hellb.; Catillaria dvorakii Servít; Catillaria mongolica H. Magn.; Catinaria acrustacea (Arnold) Vain.; Catinaria athallina (Hepp) Lynge; Kiliasia athallina (Hepp) Hafellner; Toninia athallina (Hepp) Timdal
Distribution: N - VG, TAA, Lomb, Lig (Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Caporale & al. 2008, Brackel 2020), Sar (TSB 13463). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 2010), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si.
Description: Thallus crustose, endosubstratic and inapparent or very thinly episubstratic and rimose-areolate (areoles small, 0.1-0.5 mm wide), pale ochraceous brown, forming up to 3 cm wide patches. Upper cortex, algal layer, and medulla usually not differentiated. Apothecia lecideine, black, epruinose, round to irregular in outline due to mutual compression, 0.3-0.5(-0.8) mm across, with an initially concave, then flat to slightly convex disc, and a thin, finally sometimes excluded proper margin. Proper exciple dark green in outer part, brown to reddish brown with a greenish tinge within, K-, N+ violet, lacking crystals; epithecium olivaceous brown to dark green, 8-15(-18) µm high, K-, N+ violet, lacking crystals; hymenium colourless, 50-60(-70) µm high; paraphyses easily made free, 1.8-2.5(-3) µm thick at mid-level, the apical cells clavate, up to 6 µm wide, surrounded by a pigmented gel; hypothecium reddish brown to pale brown, 60-85 µm high, I+ brick-red. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, surrounded by a gelatinous I+ blue coat, with a well-developed I+ blue tholus with a I+ darker blue tube and a well-developed ocular chamber, Bacidia-type. Ascospores 1-septate, hyaline, ellipsoid, 9.5-13.5 x 4-6.5 µm. Pycnidia black, partly to entirely immersed. Conidia filiform, often spirally curved. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a temperate to arctic species of calcareous rocks, mostly found on steeply inclined or underhanging faces in open, dry situations, sometimes invading the thalli of endolithic lichens, with a wide altitudinal range, reaching the nival belt in the Alps; certainly widespread throughout Italy, but overlooked.
Growth form: Crustose endolithic
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain
Pioneer species

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very rare
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: rare
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: rather common
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rather common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: rare

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 13633



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m, leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0
[17240], Brazil. São Paulo. Praia de Peruibe near Itanhaém, in a dense mangrove forest on Laguncularia racemosa, 2 m, 24°10' S, 46°50' W.
Leg. K. Kalb 24.02.1978 (Nr. 37602), det. K. Kalb. Dupl. ex Herbario Klaus Kalb. [211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.



Felix Schumm CC BY-SA 4.0 [17240], Brazil. São Paulo. Praia de Peruibe near Itanhaém, in a dense mangrove forest on Laguncularia racemosa, 2 m, 24°10' S, 46°50' W. Leg. K. Kalb 24.02.1978 (Nr. 37602), det. K. Kalb. Dupl. ex Herbario Klaus Kalb.
[211], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Donzdorf, Kalkbruch an der Messelbergsteige, ca. 700 m
leg. et det. Schumm 12.10.1968, test. Klement 1970, Kilias 1979.