Lecidea confluens (Weber) Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 14, 1803. Basionym: Lichen confluens Weber - Spicil. Fl. Gött.: 180-182, tab. 2, 1778.
Synonyms: Lecidea confluens f. oxydata Körb.; Lecidea confluens var. leucitica Schaer.?; Lecidea lepadina Sommerf.?; Lecidea leucitica (Schaer.) Arnold; Lecidea vapulata Anzi
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2006c, 2008, Peršoh & al. 2004, Lang 2009, Hertel & Schuhwerk 2010), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Allisiardi 2001, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Favero-Longo & al. 2015), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 1998, 2001, 2004, Isocrono & al. 2008, Favero-Longo & Piervittori 2009, Matteucci & al. 2015c), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Tretiach & al. 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig. C - Tosc, Marc, Abr (Gheza & al. 2021), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, finely rimose-areolate, bluish grey to grey, sometimes partly rust-red when growing on iron-rich substrata, rarely poorly evident, often delimited by a black prothallus. Medulla white, I+ blue. Apothecia lecideine, arising between the areoles, black, 0.7-2 mm across, semi-immersed to almost sessile, usually crowded, with a slightly concave to slightly convex, epruinose, often fissured disc, and a raised, finally poorly evident proper margin. Proper exciple blue- to blackish-green in outer part, colourless or rarely pale brown within; epithecium brown-green to olive-green, N+ purple-red; hymenium colourless, 70-100 μm high; paraphyses simple or sparingly branched and anastomosing, coherent; hypothecium dark brown, 90-100 μm high. Asci 8-spored, narrowly clavate, thick-walled, with a K/I+ pale blue tholus and a strongly amyloid, thin apical cushion, surrounded by a I+ blue outer layer, Lecidea-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid to narrowly ellipsoid, (7-)9-12(-13.5) x 4-6 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: confluentic acid, 2’-0-methylperlatolic acid, rarely stictic acid.
Note: a boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species (Hertel 2006), found on low siliceous stones and boulders with a long snow-lie, with optimum near treeline; most common in the Alps, much rarer in the high Mediterranean mountains.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: common
Subalpine belt: very common
Oromediterranean belt: very rare
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37331



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34826)
2002/02/12


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[19696], Schweiz, Splügenpass, 46.505244° N, 9.330480° E, 2122 m. A. Matuschewski, Sept. 2017, det. F. Schumm



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41620



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37331



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37331


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41620



Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37331



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41620