Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.

Lichenogr. Univ.: 442, 1810. Basionym: Lichen prunastri L. - Sp. Pl., 2: 1147, 1753.
Synonyms: Evernia arenaria auct.; Evernia herinii P.A. Duvign.; Evernia prunastri var. herinii (P.A. Duvign.) Maas Geest.; Evernia prunastri var. retusa Ach.; Evernia prunastri var. vulgaris f. minima Jatta; Letharia arenaria auct.; Parmelia prunastri (L.) Ach.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach & Molaro 2007, Tomasi 2007), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996c, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000c, Nascimbene 2001b, 2005c, 2008, 2008c, 2011, Cercasov & al. 2002, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007, 2009c, 2010b, 2013b, 2015, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, 2010, Brackel 2013), TAA (Diederich & Etayo 2000, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Gottardini & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2007b, 2010, 2014, Zarabska & al. 2009, Brackel 2013, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Alessio & al. 1995, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Furlanetto 2010, Gheza & al. 2015, 2020, Gheza 2019, 2019b), Piem (Morisi & Sereno 1995, Arosio & al. 1998, Piervittori 1998, 2003, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2005b, 2006, 2007, Morisi 2005, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c, Isocrono & al. 2008), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Sallese 2003, Tretiach & al. 2008, Cioffi 2009, Benesperi 2009, Malavasi 2014, Brackel 2015, Gerdol & al. 2014, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Putortì & al. 1999b, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008, Malaspina & al. 2009). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Corsini 1995, 2003, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, 2001, Pišút 1997, Loppi & al. 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1997e, 1998, 1999a, 2002, 2002b, 2003, 2004, 2004c, 2006, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Monaci & al. 1997, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, 2010, Putortì & al. 1998, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Putortì & Loppi 1999b, Diederich & Etayo 2000, Benesperi 2000a, 2006, 2011, Loppi & Pirintsos 2000, Paoli & Loppi 2001, 2006, Laganà & al. 2002, Landi & Loppi 2003, Lorenzini & al. 2003, Loppi & Frati 2004, Nicolardi & al. 2005, Paoli & al. 2005, 2010, 2012, 2014, Pinto & al. 2005, Frati & al. 2005, 2006b, 2011, Pisani & al. 2006, 2007, Benesperi & al. 2007, Di Lella & al. 2007, Paoli & Loppi 2008, Lastrucci & al. 2009, Triggiani & al. 2009, Munzi & al. 2009b, 2010, 2013c, Pasquinelli & al. 2009, 2013, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Pasquinelli & Puccini 2010, Loppi & Baragatti 2011, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Paoli & al. 2012b, 2013, 2013c, 2015c, 2015d, Winkler & al. 2013, Tomassini 2013, Malaspina & al. 2014b, Loppi & Paoli 2015, Brackel 2015, Nannoni & al. 2015, Nascimbene & al. 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006, Brackel 2015), Umb (Ravera 1998, 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, 2007, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1997, Ravera 2002, 2008b, Massari & Ravera 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Ruisi & al. 2005, Munzi & al. 2007, 2012, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Zucconi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1998d, 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Conti & al. 2004, Stofer 2006, Brackel 2015, Caporale & al. 2016, Corona & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Ravera & al. 2010, Paoli & al. 2011, 2015, Genovesi & Ravera 2014, Loppi & al. 2015, Brackel 2020, Caporale & Ravera 2020), Sar (Monte 1993, Nöske 2000, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 1995, 2002, 2002b, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001, Stofer 2006, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013, Neuwirth 2018, Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, 2011, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2010b, Brunialti & al. 2010, 2013, Catalano & al. 2012, 2016, Ravera & Brunialti 2013), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2004, Brackel 2011, Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010, Brackel 2011, Caggiano & al. 2015), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Incerti & Nimis 2006, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2011, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Ottonello 1996, Grillo 1996, 1998, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Schicchi & al. 1997, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Merlo 2004b, Falco Scampatelli 2005, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006, Stofer 2006, Brackel 2008b, Liistro & Cataldo 2011, Campisi & al. 2020).
Description: Thallus subfoliose to fruticose, attached with a basal holdfast, erect and tufted to subpendent, to 10 cm long (usually less), not rigid; branches flattened, strap-shaped to almost linear, dorsiventral, (1-)2-3(-5) mm wide, green to yellowish green (rarely grey) above, white beneath, with irregular, elongated marginal soralia. Soredia finely to coarsely granular, usually white. Medulla white, uniformly loose. Apothecia extremely rare, lecanorine, marginal, substipitate, with a brown disc and a thin thalline margin. Asci 8-spored, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 7-11 x 4-6 µm. Pycnidia very rare, c. 0.3 mm diam., marginal, immersed, roundish, with dark ostioles. Conidia bacilliform, straight, 6-7 x c. 0.5 µm. Photobiont: chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex K+ yellow (rarely K-), C-, KC+ yellow (rarely KC-), P-, UV-; medulla K-, KC-, C-, UV-. Chemistry: with evernic and usnic acids (the latter absent in the rare var. herinii), atranorin, and chloroatranorin.
Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, rare only in disturbed situations and in dry habitats, otherwise one of the most common epiphytic fruticose lichens of Italy.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very common
Submediterranean belt: rather rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rather common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (40098)
2001/12/03
detail of soredia



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34317)
2001/12/24


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, Oristano, Luogosanto, Gallura
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Sicilia, Agrigento, Pantelleria
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Harry Taylor; Owner: Natural History Museum London


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi
2010



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Lago di Sauris, Bosco della Stua, Carnic Alps (Ampezzo Carnico) 1000 m; altitude: 1000 m
12/08/2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19641], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Göppingen, Oberholz beim Waldheim, 48.717099° N, 9.655651° E, 379 m, Laubwald. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 25.03.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19641], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Göppingen, Oberholz beim Waldheim, 48.717099° N, 9.655651° E, 379 m, Laubwald. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 25.03.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19641], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Göppingen, Oberholz beim Waldheim, 48.717099° N, 9.655651° E, 379 m, Laubwald. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 25.03.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19641], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Göppingen, Oberholz beim Waldheim, 48.717099° N, 9.655651° E, 379 m, Laubwald. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 25.03.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19641], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Göppingen, Oberholz beim Waldheim, 48.717099° N, 9.655651° E, 379 m, Laubwald. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 25.03.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19641], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Göppingen, Oberholz beim Waldheim, 48.717099° N, 9.655651° E, 379 m, Laubwald. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 25.03.2017



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19641], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Göppingen, Oberholz beim Waldheim, 48.717099° N, 9.655651° E, 379 m, Laubwald. Leg. et det. F. Schumm, 25.03.2017



Curtis Randall Björk – CC BY-SA 4.0
Swordfish Island, British Columbia, Canada
30.11.2018


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/