Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale

Mycotaxon, 25: 604, 1986. Basionym: Lichen caperatus L. - Sp. Pl.: 1147, 1753.
Synonyms: Imbricaria caperata (L.) DC.; Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach.; Parmelia herreana Zahlbr.; Parmelia negativa Gyeln.; Pseudoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale
Distribution: N - VG (Tretiach 1993, Castello & al. 1995, Castello 1996, Carvalho 1997, 2001, Nimis & al. 2001, 2006, Castello & Skert 2005, Baruffo & al. 2006, 2008, Piccotto & al. 2006, 2011, Tretiach & al. 2007c, 2012b, Piccotto & Tretiach 2010, Bertuzzi & al. 2013, Bertuzzi & Tretiach 2013, Pellegrini & al. 2014), Frl (Tretiach 1993, Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 2001, Caniglia & al. 2005, Castello & Skert 2005, Tretiach & Molaro 2007, Bernini & al. 2010, Brackel 2013), Ven (Tretiach 1993, Nimis & al. 1996c, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1998b, 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000c, Candeo & Caniglia 2005, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, Nascimbene & al. 2007, 2009c, Nascimbene & Marini 2010, Brackel 2013), TAA (Tretiach 1993, Nascimbene 2001b, 2005b, 2006c, 2008b, 2014, Gottardini & al. 2004, Oettl & al. 2013, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2014, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Tretiach 1993, Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, 2003, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Guidetti & Stefanetti 1996, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Arosio & al. 2000, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Anderi & al. 2005, Stofer 2006, Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007b, Furlanetto 2010, Brackel 2010, 2013, Gheza & al. 2015, 2020, 2022b, Gheza 2019, 2019b), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Tretiach 1993, Stefanetti 1997, Arosio & al. 1998, Piervittori 1998, 2003, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Rizzio & al. 2001, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2005b, 2006, 2007, 2009, Griselli & al. 2003, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001, Matteucci & al. 2008, Isocrono & al. 2008), Emil (Tretiach 1993, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Sallese 2003, Morselli & Regazzi 2006, Tretiach & al. 2008, Cioffi 2009, Benesperi 2009, Malavasi 2014, Gerdol & al. 2014, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Nimis & al. 1993, Tretiach 1993, Castello & al. 1994, Palmieri & al. 1997, Brunialti & al. 1999, Putortì & al. 1999b, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Caviglia & al. 2001, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Minganti & al. 2001, 2003, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Modenesi & al. 2003, Benco & al. 2004, Minganti & al. 2004, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1992, 1992b, 1994b, 1994c, 1995, 1995b, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1997d, 1997e, 1997g, 1997h, 1998, 1998b, 1998c, 1999a, 2000, 2002, 2002b, 2002c, 2003, 2004, 2004b, 2006, Tretiach 1993, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Corsini 1995, 2003, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, 2001, Loppi 1995, 1995b, 1996, 1996b, Loppi & Bargagli 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, 1996b, Bargagli & al. 1997, Monaci & al. 1997, Pišút 1997, Corsini & al. 1998, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, 2010, Putortì & al. 1998, 1999, Putortì & Loppi 1999, 1999b, Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Benesperi 2000a, 2006, 2011, Bacci & al. 2000, Senese & Critelli 2000, Loppi & Pirintsos 2000, Bettini 2001, Del Guasta 2001, Bargagli & al. 2002, 2003, Laganà & al. 2002, Loppi & Pirintsos 2003, Landi & Loppi 2003, Lorenzini & al. 2003, Loppi & Frati 2004, Baragatti & al. 2005, Baruffo & Tretiach 2005, Baragatti 2006, Frati & al. 2006b, 2007, Pisani & al. 2006, Stofer 2006, Benesperi & al. 2007, 2013, Paoli & Loppi 2008, Brackel 2008, 2015, Lastrucci & al. 2009, Pasquinelli & al. 2009, 2013, Paoli & al. 2010, 2012, 2012b, 2013, 2013d, 2015b, 2015d, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Pasquinelli & Puccini 2010, Loppi & Baragatti 2011, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Nascimbene & al. 2015), Marc (Tretiach 1993, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006, Brunialti & al. 2012, Brackel 2015), Umb (Tretiach 1993, Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, 2007, Ravera & al. 2006, Ciotti & al. 2009, Brackel 2015), Laz (Tretiach 1993, Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Bartoli & al. 1997, Massari & Ravera 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Ruisi & al. 2005, Stofer 2006, Munzi & al. 2007, Ravera 2008b, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Genovesi & al. 2011, Zucconi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015), Abr (Tretiach 1993, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Garofalo & al. 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Paoli & al. 2015, Brackel 2015, 2020, Caporale & al. 2016, Caporale & Ravera 2020), Sar (Tretiach 1993, Zedda 1995, 2002, 2002b, Nöske 2000, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013, Neuwirth 2018 ,Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Tretiach 1993, Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, 2010, 2011, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Brunialti & al. 2010, 2013, Nascimbene & al. 2010b, Catalano & al. 2010, 2012, 2016, Ravera & Brunialti 2013), Pugl (Tretiach 1993, Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2004, Brackel 2011, Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010, Potenza & Fascetti 2010, Brackel 2011), Cal (Tretiach 1993, Puntillo 1995, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Incerti & Nimis 2006, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Tretiach 1993, Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2011, Ottonello 1996, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grasso & al. 1999, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Caniglia & al. 2005, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b).
Description: Thallus foliose, broad-lobed, adnate to loosely adnate, forming regular, 5-20 cm wide rosettes, the individual thalli sometimes coalescing to cover extensive areas. Lobes elongate, flat to slightly convex, 5-15 mm wide, contiguous, with rounded apices, yellowish green, smooth but soon becoming strongly rugose and folded in central parts, emaculate, with laminal, granular to wart-like, pustulate soredia often covering the whole thallus centre. Lower surface black centrally, brown peripherally; with simple rhizines. Upper cortex of tightly packed, anticlinally oriented hyphae, with a thin pored epicortex, the cell walls with isolichenan; medulla white; algal layer continuous; lower cortex paraplectenchymatous. Apothecia rare, lecanorine to 1 cm across, with a brown disc and a sorediate thalline margin. Epithecium brownish; hymenium and hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 15-24 x 8-13 µm. Pycnidia laminal, semi-immersed. Conidia dumbbell-shaped, 5-7 x 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellowish, P-; medulla K+ dirty yellow, C-, KC-, P+ red, UV-. Chemistry: upper cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with protocetraric acid (major) and caperatic acid (minor).
Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on isolated deciduous, more rarely evergreen trees, only exceptionally on rocks (e.g. on north-exposed faces of basic siliceous rocks in dry-continental Alpine valleys); common and abundant in the submediterranean belt (except along the Adriatic side of the Peninsula that is more subject to dry-cold winds), rarer elsewhere; in humid areas common also within eu-Mediterranean vegetation, in arid areas restricted to sheltered situations, e.g. inside open forests.
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: common
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: extremely rare

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


G. Incerti CC BY-SA 04
TSB 31780



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009


Manilio Prignano; Owner: Manilio Prignano
Italy, Artemisio
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Chianti
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Chianti
2010


Ettore Pacini; Owner: Ettore Pacini
Italy, Toscana, Siena, Eremo di San Leonardo al Lago (Monteriggioni)
14.04.2014



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino (Rupingrande)
07.07.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 600 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Ampezzo Carnico, 600 m
09.09.2016



Pier Luigi Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Erice, castle
12/2016



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[9367], Spanien, Kanaren, La Gomera, Los Barranquillos nordöstlich von Arure an der Strasse nach Vallehermoso im Lorbeerwald, 28°09.150’ N, 17°18.299’ W, 1015 m. Leg. Schumm 13.02.2002, det. Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[9367], Spanien, Kanaren, La Gomera, Los Barranquillos nordöstlich von Arure an der Strasse nach Vallehermoso im Lorbeerwald, 28°09.150’ N, 17°18.299’ W, 1015 m. Leg. Schumm 13.02.2002, det. Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[9367], Spanien, Kanaren, La Gomera, Los Barranquillos nordöstlich von Arure an der Strasse nach Vallehermoso im Lorbeerwald, 28°09.150’ N, 17°18.299’ W, 1015 m. Leg. Schumm 13.02.2002, det. Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[9367], Spanien, Kanaren, La Gomera, Los Barranquillos nordöstlich von Arure an der Strasse nach Vallehermoso im Lorbeerwald, 28°09.150’ N, 17°18.299’ W, 1015 m. Leg. Schumm 13.02.2002, det. Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[9367], Spanien, Kanaren, La Gomera, Los Barranquillos nordöstlich von Arure an der Strasse nach Vallehermoso im Lorbeerwald, 28°09.150’ N, 17°18.299’ W, 1015 m. Leg. Schumm 13.02.2002, det. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19689], Germany, Bayern, Chiemgau, auf der Insel Herrenchiemsee 620 m östlich vom Schloß am Ende der Allee. 47.86001 ° N, 12.41015° E, 525 m. Leg. A. Matuschewski & F. Schumm, 11.9.2017, det. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19689], Germany, Bayern, Chiemgau, auf der Insel Herrenchiemsee 620 m östlich vom Schloß am Ende der Allee. 47.86001 ° N, 12.41015° E, 525 m. Leg. A. Matuschewski & F. Schumm, 11.9.2017, det. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19689], Germany, Bayern, Chiemgau, auf der Insel Herrenchiemsee 620 m östlich vom Schloß am Ende der Allee. 47.86001 ° N, 12.41015° E, 525 m. Leg. A. Matuschewski & F. Schumm, 11.9.2017, det. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19689], Germany, Bayern, Chiemgau, auf der Insel Herrenchiemsee 620 m östlich vom Schloß am Ende der Allee. 47.86001 ° N, 12.41015° E, 525 m. Leg. A. Matuschewski & F. Schumm, 11.9.2017, det. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19689], Germany, Bayern, Chiemgau, auf der Insel Herrenchiemsee 620 m östlich vom Schloß am Ende der Allee. 47.86001 ° N, 12.41015° E, 525 m. Leg. A. Matuschewski & F. Schumm, 11.9.2017, det. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19689], Germany, Bayern, Chiemgau, auf der Insel Herrenchiemsee 620 m östlich vom Schloß am Ende der Allee. 47.86001 ° N, 12.41015° E, 525 m. Leg. A. Matuschewski & F. Schumm, 11.9.2017, det. F. Schumm.



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, TS, Basovizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB
2002/05/13
exceptionally fruiting specimen


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/